Indian Construction Industrywas almost similar to the construction industry evolution in other countries: founded by Government and slowly taken over by enterprises. After independence the need for industrial and infrastructural developments in India laid the foundation stone of construction, architectural and engineering services.
The objective of such an imposition was to develop local design capabilities parallel with the inflow of imported technology and skills. This measure encouraged international construction and consultancy organizations to set upjoint venturesand register their presence in India.
In India Construction has accounted for around 40 per cent of the development investment during the past 50 years. Around 16 per cent of the nation’s working population depends on construction for its livelihood. The Indian construction industry employs over 3 crore people and creates assets worth over20,000 crore.
Total sales of construction industry have reached 42,885.38 crores in 2004 05 from21,451.9 crores in 2000-01.
The Indian construction industry comprises 200 firms in the corporate sector. In addition to these firms, there are about 1, 20,000 class A contractors registered with various government construction bodies. There are thousands of small contractors, which compete for small jobs or work as sub-contractors of prime or other contractors.
PEST ANALYSIS PEST分析
Ø POLITICAL FACTORS
SEZ Act to Boost Infrastructural Development:
SEZ is the new destination for real estate investors. Currently 150 SEZs are approved out of which 85 SEZs are in the IT/ITES area and 10-15 SEZs in the electronics area.130 SEZs are developed by real estate developers which constitute
of about 50% of the total SEZ area. IT SEZ should be developed and made operational within the period of six months from the date of notification. Thus, 130 approved SEZs would result in investment of US$10 bn to US$ 12 bn immediately.
Cement Prices Reduced for State Infrastructure Projects
The continued thrust on infrastructure development will provide impetus to the healthy growth in demand, protecting the bottomline of cement companies to an extent. The reduction in the CST and in freight rates on diesel and limestone will be marginally positive for some companies.
FDI Liberalization to Augment Industry Growth
Recent amendments by the government have made accessibility to the required capital much easier. Opening of FDI in construction and allowing developers to raise capital in international markets has led to developments of larger projects benchmarked against international standard
REITs to Positively Affect Real Estate Business
The proposed introduction of REMF (Real Estate Mutual Fund) and REIT (Real estate Investment Trust) will boost real estate investments from the small investor’s point of view. This will allow small investors to enter real estate market with contribution as less than Rs 10,000. The concept of REIT is on the verge of entering
India and would be structured as a company dedicated to owning and in most cases operating income producing real estate such as apartments, shopping centers, offices & warehouses.
Ø ECONOMIC FACTORS 經濟因素
Growth in Construction Activity Stimulating GDP Growth
India is witnessing tremendous growth & expansion of construction activities and construction is largest component of GDP. It has been growing at a rate over 10% in the past few years when GDP growth is around 8%.Within construction; sectors such as roads, railways, housing and power have been keen drivers.
Rate Hikes Unlikely To Slow Down Growth
It has been analyzed that residential prices have increased by about 15- 20% on average in the last one year. There has been strong growth in demand supported by rising disposable incomes, low interest rates, and fiscal incentives on both interest and principal payments and increasing urbanization.
Ø SOCIAL FACTORS 社會因素
Shifting Consumption Pattern to Fuel Industry Growth
The consumption pattern of Indian households is undergoing a gradual, but steady change. The share of food and beverages, which used to constitute almost 50% of household spend until 2003 is expected to fall to 45% by FY08. We expect the share of discretionary items to consistently rise given the rising affordability and changing aspiration levels. Increased exposure to western lifestyles (through media as well as overseas travels) has altered the consumption pattern of Indian people.
Rising Urbanization to Boost Industrial Growth
Urban infrastructure consists of drinking water, sanitation, sewage systems, electricity and gas distribution, urban transport, primary health services, and environmental regulation. Many of these services are in the nature of ‘local’ public goods with the benefits from improved urban infrastructure. The urban population in India will grow by 85 million over the next 10 years.
Green buildings in India
The green building movement has gained tremendous momentum during 3 to 4 years, ever since the Green Business Centre embarked on achieving the prestigious LEED rating for their own centre at Hyderabad. The Platinum rating for green building has sensitized the stakeholders of construction industry. There is tremendous potential for construction of green buildings in India. The estimated market potential for green building will be about $ 400 million in 2010.There will be favorable policies of the government would provide the right impetus for advancing the green building movement in India.
Ø TECHNOLOGICAL FACTORS 技術因素
Low Technology Adoption to Hinder Growth
The poor state of technology adopted by the construction sector adversely affects its performance. Upgrading of technology is required both in the manufacturing of construction material and in construction activities. As a large number of construction materials are manufactured in the unorganized sector, effective monitoring and regulation of the production of these materials to ensure proper quality becomes difficult. Use of low-grade technology in the construction sector leads to low value addition and low productivity, apart from poor or substandard quality of construction and time overruns in projects. The non-availability of quality construction tools is the main reason for this. Besides, the construction sector also lacks information about new technology.
Construction as per Indian Requirements
The construction needs to be done as per Indian standards and requirements which will demand considerable changes form the international requirements. The infrastructure requirements of India are much different as the population spread, increasing urbanization, increasing slums, the small space for roads, the water problems are more.
Ready-Mix-Concrete Being Experimented With
The Ready mix concrete business in India is in its infancy. For example, 70% of cement produced in a developed country like Japan is used by Ready Mix concrete business there. Here in India, Ready Mix concrete business uses around 2% of total cement production.
Much of construction done in India is very slow paced. The concrete making process at site takes much time with variation in quality. The increasing use of ready mix not only saves on time but allows the better quality. It will also eliminate the storage space at site, eliminate Procurement / Hiring of plant and machinery, reduce wastages of basic material, noise and dust at site will be reduced. Also organization at site will be streamlined. This will improve the rate at which infrastructure can be built in India.
Lanco is one of the fastest growing Integrated Infrastructure Enterprises of India, operating across a synergistic chain of Strategic Business Units (SBUs) comprising Power, EPC, Construction, Renewable, Resources, Non-Power Infrastructure, Property development and CSR.
Lanco Infratech Ltd’s current market capitalization is approximately Rs. 15,000 Crores (USD 3.33 billion). Out of the total Share Capital, the promoters’ holding is about 68 %. The gross revenue of Lanco as on March 2010 was over Rs. 8200 Crores (USD 1.8 billion).
Lanco is fast emerging as one of the top three private sector power developers in India with 2092 MW under operation, 7153 MW under construction, and 11070 MW of projects under development.
In a strategic move that provides increased fuel security for its current power generating assets and its future power portfolio expansions, Lanco through its step down Australian subsidiary, Lanco Resources Australia, has acquired Griffin Coal Mining Company and Carpenter Mine Management. Griffin coal, based out of Collie in Western Australia, owns the largest operational thermal coal mines in Western Australia, producing over 4 mtpa of coal which can be ramped up to over 15 mtpa in the near term, post development of evacuation infrastructure.
Lanco has strategic global partnerships with top-notch companies which include: Genting, Harbin, GE, Dongfang, Doosan etc. Today, Lanco is one of India’s largest Power Traders in the private sector.
A people driven organization, Lanco operates from 20 States in India and has international operations in Australia, China, Indonesia, Nepal, Singapore, United Kingdom and USA with a human resource base of about 6500 people. Lanco has an Order book of Rs 25,425 Crores as of September 2010. Lanco is also a privileged member to the World Economic Forum and it has been acknowledged as an elite member of the top two hundred “Global Growth Companies”.
As part of its business strategy, the company has chalked out an ambitious growth plan – Lanco’s Vision 2015: to build a High Performance Organization with an operating capacity of 15000 MW in Power. Lanco also envisages aggressive growth plans for EPC with a strong Order book growth.
VISION OF LANCO
An India without poverty, where the internationally agreed millennium development goals are met and people with dignity and respect, using their full potential to access the opportunities and exercise choices for their own development -a society that constantly moves to inspire people.
MISSION OF LANCO
To work towards developing rural and urben communities in order to reduce poverty and contribute effectively towards reduction in loss of environment resources.
To improve human development indices through projects and programs at the local, state and national level.
Development of society through enterpreneurship
Most admired integrated infrastructure enterprise
VALUES OF LANCO
We choose to be honest in all our Business Interactions and Transactions and remain steadfast even when challenged. We strive for consistency between – what we think, what we Say and what we do.
Humility & Respect
We are consistently humble in our approach to and interactions with people. We treat every person with respect at all times, unconditionally.
Organisation Before Self
We recognize that organization interest is supreme, above individual preferences and goals. In all our decisions, actions and dealings we put the Organization before self.
We have an urge that drives us to intensely focus on performance and act decisively with high energy to achieve the desired results. We strive to continuously learn and consistently set higher Standards of Excellence.
We always demonstrate a ‘can-do’ mind-set and engage to deliver organizational goals. We look upon challenging circumstances as opportunities to enhance our capabilities and find ways of achieving.
We own up to our words, actions and outcome.When we commit to do something, we own it and we do it – decisively and responsibly.
We work harmoniously with a shared vision, energized by our collective talent. We Trust, Listen to, Share with and Empower team members and take collective responsibility for the results.
EPC-World Awards 2010
for “Outstanding contribution in Power & Energy sector (Generation)”.
8 th Construction World- Annual Awards 2010
for Fastest Growing Construction Company (Large Category)- 1stRank
7thConstruction World- Annual Awards 2009
for Fastest Growing Construction Company (Large Category)- 3rdRank
Aban Power Company Ltd
TERI Corporate Award for “Environmental Excellence and Corporate Social Responsibility” June 2009.
IEEMA award for “Excellence in Fast Track Commissioning of Small Hydro Projects” February 2009
PRSI Confers Golden Jubilee Award
for the “Most Impressive Public Relations Initiatives” August 2008
Clarion Power Corporation Ltd
FAPCCI Award for Excellence in Renewable Energy 2007.
Construction World NICMAR Awards 2007
for the Second Fastest Growing Construction Company (Medium Category) in India.
LANCO Institute of General Humanitarian Trust (LIGHT)
TERI Award 2006-07 for Excellence in Corporate Social Responsibility.
PRSI National Award for House Journal (English) – First Prize
PRSI Confers Golden Jubilee Award
for the “Most Impressive Public Relations Initiatives”
Award for Excellence in Bridge Engineering 1999
from the Indian Institute of Bridge Engineers.
SWOT ANALYSIS SWOT分析
Employment and training opportunities in the field of construction.
Private sector housing boom and commercial building demands Construction of the multi building projects on the feasible locations in the country.
Good structured national network facilitates the boom of construction industry.
Low cost well- educated and skilled labour force is now widely available across the country.
Sufficient availability of raw material and natural resources in the country is supportive for the industry.
Real estate development is on high and it is attracting the focus of the industry towards construction.
Distance between construction projects reduces business efficiency.
Training itself has become a challenge.
Changing skills requirements and an ageing workforce may emphasize the skills gap.
Improvement in long-term career prospects is highly required to encourage staff retention and new entrants.
External allocation of large contracts becomes difficult.
Lack of clearly defined processes and procedures for construction and its management.
Huge amount of money needs to be invested in this industry.
Continuous private sector housing boom will create more construction opportunities.
Public sector projects through Public Private Partnerships will bring further opportunities.
Developing supply chain through involvement in large projects is likely to enhance the chances in construction.
Renewable energy projects will offer opportunities to develop skills and capacity in new markets.
More flexible training delivery techniques are now available.
Financial supports like loan and insurance and growth in income of people is in support of construction industry.
Long term market instability and uncertainty may damage the opportunities and prevent the expansion of training and development facilities.
Current economic situation may have an adverse impact on construction industry.
Political and security conditions in the region and Late legislative enforcement measures are always threats to any industry in India.
Infrastructure safety is a challenging task in construction industry.
Lack of political willingness and support on promoting new strategies.
Natural abnormal casualties such as earth quake and floods are uncertain and can prevent the construction boom.
Inefficient accessibility in planning and concerning the infrastructure.
Competitors are emerging in the industry by leaps and bounds.
To Start with, the historical growth of vehicles is examined based on the traffic surveys conducted in the past along the study corridor. Having examined the accuracy and reliability of data, we further analyze the motor vehicle registration statistics at the state level to establish a relationship between the economic variables and the registration data, as a proxy for the traffic growth.
The relationship provides the elasticity values by vehicle type, which are then compared with the results of other studies of similar nature carried out in the recent past. The comparative picture provides us the required validation and modification of the estimated elasticity values.
Finally, based on the future economic growth prospects in terms of income growth, per capita growth and population growth are considered for estimating the future traffic growth rate by vehicle type.
Traffic Studies are carried out:
To obtain the knowledge of the type and volume of traffic at present and to estimate future traffic that the road is expected to carry.
To determine the facilities provided on the roads such as traffic regulation and control, intersections, so that improvement on the basis of traffic density may be carried out.
To design the geometric features and pavement thickness on the basis of traffic surveys.
Traffic survey and studies are done as a part of the study to assess the base year traffic pattern.
Different traffic studies :
A comprehensive 7 day traffic volume count at toll plaza locations.
Origin-destination (OD) survey at 2 suitable locations.
A comprehensive 1 day number plate registration survey at toll plaza locations.
Comprehensive surveys between the alternate routes covering both existing and future responsibilities.
Average daily traffic (ADT).
Annual average daily traffic (AADT) considering the seasonality variation.
A comprehensive 7 day traffic volume count at toll plaza locations:
The main objective of classified traffic volume count was to access the traffic characteristics on project road section in terms of hourly variation, peak hour traffic, average daily traffic, traffic composition and directional distribution. The survey was carried out by vehicle counting and classifying the vehicle passing the survey station. The counts were made separately for motorized and non motorized vehicles. In addition toll exempted vehicles i.e. government, ambulance, fire vehicles etc. were classified separately.
Traffic Volume is the number of vehicles crossing a section of road per unit time at any selected period. The commonly used units are vehicles per day and vehicles per hour.
The various methods available are:
Combination of manual and mechanical method
Moving observer devices
Generally manual method is used. This method employs a field team to record traffic volume on the prescribed record sheets. In this method the fluctuations of traffic volume during the hours of the day and the daily variations are observed.
Origin-destination (OD) survey at 2 suitable locations:
Origin and Destination survey for road section was obtained by carrying out by police assistance. Data of origin and destination of the trip was collected in the survey; a zoning system was order to analyze the origin destination data. Origin destination data was used to identify the zones that contribute to the traffic on the road.
Growth of traffic on the road will depend upon the economic developments in the influence areas of the road.
TheOrigin -Destination survey was carried out with the primary objective of studying the travel pattern of passenger and goods traffic along the study corridor.
The results of this survey forms a useful input for estimating the growth rates for traffic projections, identification of toll plaza location and planning for toll collection system.
The various applications of OD survey may be summed up as follows:
To locate expressway or major routes along the desire lines.
To judge the adequacy of parking facilities and to plan for future.
To locate intermediate stops of public transport.
To establish preferential routes for various categories of vehicle including by pass.
Methods for collecting the OD survey data:
Road-side interview method
License plate method
Return post card method
Generally road-side interview method is used in which vehicles are stopped at previously decided interview stations by a group of persons with the help of police assistance and the answers to prescribed questionnaire are collected on the spot.
A comprehensive 1 day number plate registration survey at toll plaza locations:
Registration plate survey is carried out at all toll plaza locations to know that how much traffic is influenced by the local traffic. Because if the person is staying inside the radius of 20 kms from the toll plaza location then he has to pay only 50 percent of the toll tax according to the government policy.
Comprehensive surveys between the alternate routes:
The main objective of this survey is to analyze the alternative routes and leakage of traffic on the project road because it will directly affect your toll revenue.
Average daily traffic (ADT):
Average daily trafficorADT is the average number ofvehiclestwo-way passing a specific point in a 24-hour period, normally measured throughout a year. ADT is not as highly referred to as the engineering standard ofAADTwhich is the standard measurement for vehicle traffic load on a section of road, and the basis for most decisions regardingtransport planning, or to the environmental hazards of pollution related to road transport.
Annual average daily traffic (AADT):
Annual average daily traffic or AADT is a measure used primarily intransportation planningandtransportation engineering. It is the total volume of vehicle traffic of ahighwayorroad for a year divided by 365 days. AADT is a useful and simple measurement of how busy the road is. It is also sometimes reported as “average annual daily traffic”. One of the most important uses of AADT is for determining funding for the maintenance and improvement of Highways. AADT is calculated by multiplying Seasonal variation factor in ADT.
Formula for calculating Annual average daily traffic (AADT) from ADT is as under:
Annual average daily traffic (AADT) = Factor * Average daily traffic
Seasonal Variation of traffic (correction factor)
The flow of traffic on the road varies significantly during different months of the year. As monthly flow data is not available, petrol and diesel sales are collected from petrol stations along the highway to calculate the correction factor. This data is analyzed compared to the month of ADT the annual average variation factor valuated to arrive at AADT from ADT as recorded.
REASEARCH AND FINDINGS 研究和發現
For completion of the project “Strategies involved in opting an infrastructure project (highway) through traffic study” The aim of the project is to analyze and interpret the traffic study reports based on which highway projects are bid. Interpretation of the report is very critical as it helps in assessing the revenue generation for the entire concession period, based on which a bid is made.
In order to complete my project, I was asked to thoroughly analyze the report on “Kota-Jhalawar road section on NH-12 and Aligarh-Kanpur road section on NH-91”
KOTA-JHALAWAR ROAD SECTION ON NH-12
Proposed number and locations of traffic survey stations have been identified after detail reconnaissance. The Traffic Engineer has trained the post-in-charges and monitors the training of surveyors by them. Survey and count sheets have been spot checked on a regular basis and data registered in the field office. Data to be collected from includes:
The type of traffic surveys and the minimum number of survey stations were as under:-
CLASSIFIED VOLUME COUNT
The classified traffic volume count surveys have been carried out for 7 days (continuous, direction-wise) at the selected survey stations indicated below. Keeping in view the vehicle classification system given in IRC codes (IRC 9 – 1972, IRC SP: 19 – 2001) the following generalized classification system have been used in recording the classified volume count.
Motorized Traffic Non-Motorized Traffic:
Passenger Car Animal Drawn Vehicle (ADV)
Utility Vehicle (Jeep, Van etc.) Hand Cart
Other Non-Motorized Vehicle
Truck MCV: 2-Axle Rigid Chassis
MCV: 3-Axle Rigid Chassis
(For Procedure of Traffic Analysis refer Annexure I )
We have carried out O-D and Commodity Movement Surveys at locations given below in accordance with IRC: 9-1972. The roadside interviews were on random sample basis as per TOR. The trip matrices were worked out for each vehicle type information on weight for trucks was summed up by commodity type and the results tabulated, giving total weight and average weight per truck for the various commodity types. The sample size for each vehicle type was indicated on the table and also in the graphical representations. The data derived from surveys has also been analyzed to bring out the lead and load characteristics and desire line diagrams.
Three Locations identified for O-D surveys are as under:-
Near Kebal Nagar Village(Both Direction) …………………….265.000
Near Devarighata (Both Direction) ……………………………..320.000
Near Chandrabhaga river Toll Plaza…………………………..337+500
TURNING MOVEMENT SURVEYS
The turning movement surveys for estimation of peak hour traffic for the design of major intersections were carried out for the Study. The details regarding composition and directional movement of traffic have been compiled.
The methodology for the surveys was in accordance with IRC: SP: 41-1994.
The data derived from the survey was used to analyze and to identify requirements of suitable remedial measures, such as construction of underpasses, flyovers, interchanges, and grade-separated intersections along the project road alignment.
Intersections with high traffic volume requiring special treatments either presently or in future were identified.
Locations comprising major intersections have been identified during detail reconnaissance. Data for turning movement survey is vital in identifying the section for operation as toll road. Details are presented in Annexure to chapter 6.
Identified Location of Turning Movement Count (TMC) stations are as:
Sangod – Kanwas Junction ………………………………………….291.000
Chechat – Rawat Bhata Road ……………………………………….304.600
Link Road of SH – 9A Ram Ganj Mandi ……………………………315.500
Bagher Mandawar Junction ………………………………………….67+683
Mandawar Teendhar Junction ………………………………………346+539
AXLE LOAD SURVEYS
The axle load surveys have been done using load cell. The axle load data was collected axle configuration-wise. The number of equivalent standard axles per truck was calculated on the basis of results obtained. The results of the survey have been used for VDF. Furthermore, the data from axle load surveys was analyzed to bring out the Gross Vehicle Weight (GVW) and Single Axle Load (SAL) Distributions by truck type (axle configuration).
Appropriate field studies such as moving car survey to determine running speed and journey speed. The data was analyzed to identify sections with typical traffic flow problems and congestion. Recommendation was made for suitable measures for segregation of local traffic, smooth flow of through traffic and traffic safety. These measures have included the provision of bypasses, under-passes, flyovers, grade separated intersections and service roads. Speed delay survey was done for whole project highway.
TRUCK TERMINAL SURVEYS
The data derived from the O-D, speed-delay, and other surveys was analyzed to assess requirements for present and future development of truck terminals at suitable locations en-route.
ROAD INVENTORY SURVEYS
Detailed road inventory surveys have been carried out to collect details of all existing road & pavement features along the existing road sections. The data collected through road inventory surveys was sufficient to meet the requirements.
The data are presented in the format given as “Road Inventory Data Sheet” (IRC-SP-
The headings are given below.
Terrain (flat, rolling, mountainous)
Land Use (agricultural, commercial, forest, residential etc) @ every kilometer;
Name of Village
Carriageway width, surfacing type and condition @ every 500m and every change of feature whichever is earlier;
Shoulder surfacing type and width and condition @ every 500m and every change of feature whichever is earlier;
Height of embankment or depth of cut @ every 200m and every change of feature whichever is earlier.
Details of cross road
The data have been collected in sufficient detail, compiled & presented in tabular form. The data have been stored in computer files using utility packages, such as EXCEL etc.
SUBGRADE CHARACTERISTIC & STRENGTH
The testing of soils for classification & mechanical characteristics has been as per terms of reference. “Testing of three sub-grade soil samples for each design section or three samples for each soil type encountered, whichever is more has been done”.
Thus testing for sub-grade soil at each test pit includes:
In-situ density & moisture content
Field CBR using DCP
Characterization (Grain size & Atterberg Limits)
Laboratory moisture-density characteristics (modified AASHTO compactions)
Laboratory CBR (unsoaked & 4 day soaked compacted at 3 energy levels)
INVESTIGATION OF BORROW AREAS
The borrow areas were first identified by visual inspection and enquiries along the project road and adjacent areas. The soil samples from these borrow areas were collected, and the required tests as per specification & IRC/BIS codes were done.
Grain size analysis was done for particles smaller than 4.75mm. For particles having size between 4.75mm and 75 microns, sieve analysis was done (wet sieving) and for particles smaller than 75 microns, Hydrometer analysis was done. CBR test, Atterberg’s Limit and moisture contents were also determined. Material found satisfactory can be used for construction activity.
INVESTIGATION OF MATERIAL FOR CONSTRUCTION
The investigation of different quarries was conducted from different places where stone aggregates and sand are available. Samples were collected and tests were performed in accordance with IS: 2386 (Part III), IS: 120 (Part I), AASHTO-T182, IS: 624-1971, IS: 2380 (Part V). BOT II / DPR / 03) 3 -12
INVESTIGATIONS OF OTHER CONSTRUCTION MATERIALS
Availability and suitability of other construction materials like Fly ash, coarse sand, local sand and bricks were investigated. Samples were collected and required tests performed in the laboratory. Cement, Steel and Bitumen are manufactured items and readily available.
Requirement of roadside drainage system and the integration of the same with proposed cross drainage system have been worked out for the entire length.
Improving storm water drainage in built-up areas using vertical drains as per IRC: SP: 50-1990 has been adopted.
Median cut of 1.5m widths has again been proposed for section with super elevated carriageways. The water will flow from one carriageway to other and then finally into the open drain running parallel to the alignment.
INVESTIGATIONS FOR STRUCTURES
We have made an inventory of all the structures (bridges, viaducts, ROB, culverts, etc.) along the road under the project. The inventory for the bridges, viaducts and ROB’s shall include the parameters required as per the guidelines of IRC-SP: 35- 1990.
HYDRAULIC AND HYDROLOGICAL INVESTIGATIONS
The hydrological and hydraulic studies were carried out in accordance with IRC Special Publication No. 13 (“Guidelines for the Design of Small Bridges and Culverts”) and IRC: 5-1998 (“Standard Specifications & Code of Practice for Road Bridges, Section I General Feature of Design”). These investigations were carried out for all existing drainage structures along the road sections under the study. Study on topography (topographic maps), storm duration, rainfall statistics, topsoil characteristics, vegetation cover etc were done so as to assess the catchments areas and hydraulic parameters for all existing and proposed drainage provisions. The findings of the desk study have been further supplemented and augmented by a reconnaissance along the area. All-important hydrological features were noted during this field reconnaissance. Information on high flood level (HFL), low water levels (LWL), discharge velocity etc. were collected from available past records, local inquiries and visible signs, on the structural components and embankments. Local inquiries were also made with regard to the road sections getting overtopped during heavy rains.
TRAFFIC SURVEY ANALYSIS AND FORECAST
Traffic is one of the most important components of road project feasibility study. The study of traffic & travel characteristics is conducted to assess the nature and magnitude of traffic problems on the project road. A correct assessment of the existing traffic condition along with past traffic flow trends forms a basis for further analysis of estimation of traffic flow for the horizon years. As the travel is the derived demand due to interaction of numerous socio economic activities, it is also imperative to study the growth of the socio-economic, demographic profiles in the project area influencing the travel demand.
Presently traffic facilities on the project road in terms of pedestrian sidewalk in urban area, access control, road signage and markings are non-existent or at best highly deficient. Certain sections on the road, heavy movement of goods traffic poses serious problems of traffic operation resulting in high degree of traffic congestion. Other problems along the highway are inadequate sight distance, poor road geometrics, kerb side parking, and non-conforming land use activities along the roadside and other encroachments within right of way.
Keeping these in view, utmost and judicious care has been taken to organize various logistics to study the traffic and travel characteristics on the project road. This would enable to plan and design the project road to meet future traffic requirements and ensure safe and efficient movement of traffic for horizon years.
Traffic data is one of the important inputs required for a highways project. This chapter deals with various traffic studies carried out and the analysis of the data obtained from these studies.
The following traffic studies have been carried out for the project.
Classified traffic volume counts for 7 days and 24 hours duration
Turning movement count survey
Origin – Destination study
Truck parking survey
Axle load survey
Speed and Delay Survey
Collection of data, on past traffic volume from the State P.W.D. for the available locations.
(For Traffic survey Locations refer Annexure II )
The Scope of traffic operation and safety Plan includes the safety of:
Site / Project Workers
Construction Machineries / Equipments
Purpose of the Safety management system is to ensure safe traveling & road use conditions to the road users during construction and to ensure efficient & safe working condition to the workers during construction.
Objective of Safety & Traffic Management is to:
Ensure protection of workers on site through strict enforcement of safety plans /standards, proper training to the workers and through deployment of trained & experience workers staff at site.
Ensure applicable and adequate safety measures at site through proper barricading, safe access to site, lighting etc. and use of Personal Protective Equipments (PPE) & other safety tools and equipments.
Ensure smooth, safe and uninterrupted traffic flow on the project highway at all times during construction.
Give adequate information / warning sufficiently in advance about any situation / event / matter affecting the project highway through proper sign ages, demarcations etc.
Ensure safety of road users against the hazards due to
Ø Road Condition
Ø Low Visibility
Ø Vehicle breakdown on carriageway
Ø Repair work etc. in progress on carriageway or for any other reason resulting in disturbance in free flow of traffic disturbance to the properties adjacent to the project
Ensure safety of project assets and public utilities.
Ensure the compliance to the applicable IRC & safety codes in good spirit.
To ensure safety of road users and workers during construction & defect liability period one Safety Officer will deputed at site for strict compilation to the safety standards. He shall be responsible for systematic identification, evaluation and implementation of preventive control of different foreseeable hazards. He shall also be responsible for making necessary arrangements for traffic safety and control through proper coordination with safety supervisors. He shall advice and assists the Engineers and Staff to create and maintain safe working conditions at site.
No drugs, alcohol or alcoholic beverages are permitted on work site.
All connection for electricity, water supply and other temporary facilities made by authorized persons only and shall be in accordance with legal and contractual requirements.
Work shall only be carried out if an authorized person has ordered it.
GENERAL SAFETY HINTS TOTHE WORKERS
Wear protective clothing or apparel where required to do so.
Must wear other safety gear where required / indicated.
Keep work site and work areas tidy.
Use correct tools and safety apparel for the job.
Maintain personal hygiene e.g. washing hands before meals. Report an unsafe condition to your supervisor and stop unsafe actions immediately. Think before you act. Don’t horseplay or distract others.
Don’t take shortcuts, your safety and that of others is more important.
Obey all safety rules and signs.
Report all accidents however small, and have them treated immediately.
Work on the highway shall be carryout in a manner creating least interference to the flow of traffic. During execution of the work a passage would be constructed for traffic either along a part of the existing carriageway under improvement on constructed close to the highway, as per site enter width of road will remain open to traffic at all the times with suitable traffic diversion measures on granular or suitable surface as applicable/required.
The construction zone creates an environment where the road user is faced with a series of hazards in the form of unfamiliar routes and standard horizontal and vertical alignment, adversely placed construction equipment .The road user also has to keep a watch over traffic control devices apart from performing normal driving functions of vehicle control and responding to other traffic hazards. These factors increase the strain on driver’s performance and may lead to accidents. The safety performance of the management and Safety officer would be oriented towards reducing conditions which lead to such hazards and would give stress where risk of accident is more.
The guiding principles for safety in road construction zones are to:
Warn the drivers I road user clearly and sufficiently in advance
Provide safe and clear marked lanes for guiding road users
Provide safe and clearly marked buffer and work zones
Provide adequate measures that control driver behavior through construction zones, lane closures or traffic diversions.
The following defined precautions shall be applied to all the work sites:
All the signs and delineators shall be maintained in a clean and brightly painted condition at all times.
Adequate lighting arrangements shall be made for proper visibility after sunset in construction zones.
Adequate arrangements like frequent sprinkling of water shall be made to keep the area dust free.
For high traffic density roads, the following precautions must be taken:
For safety of workmen:
Workmen would be given safety induction before work commences.
First Aid training programs would be given to certain identified workmen and would be given responsibility to provide first aid to all the workmen at site.
Workers required on site during night hours must be provided with fluorescent jackets and safety helmet with reflective tapes.
Adequate barriers are provided to protect the workforce.
Adequate temporary lighting is provided wherever it is required.
For Safety of Road User:
The material, equipment and machinery would be stocked / parked in places sufficiently away from the road.
Machinery would be parked at appropriate places with red flags and red tights on during night.
Adequate measures are implemented to prevent operatives, tools, materials, etc. from falling onto live carriageways.
Speed limits are set, marked, and enforced.
ADVANCE WARNING SUB-ZONE
The advance warning sub-zone is meant to prepare the driver for an alert behaviour and is an essential part of any traffic control system. The warning system shall prepare the driver well in advance by providing information regarding distance.
Extent and type of hazard ahead so that he can gradually reduce the speed of his vehicle. The information in this sub-zone is conveyed mostly through a series of traffic signs along its length.
The transition sub-zone is the area in which the traffic is steered and guided into and out of the diverted path around the work sub-zone. This is the most crucial sub-zone from safety point of view since most of the movements are turning movements. The traffic in this sub-zone is mostly taken across with the help of barricades and channels.
This is the actual area where construction or maintenance activity is taking place and the main concern, therefore, is the safety of the workers at the site from the plying traffic. The path of the traffic must, therefore, be very clearly delineated to avoid intrusion of vehicles moving into the work area. The work sub-zones shall not be close to each other and the distance between the two work sub-zones shall be such that the flow of traffic can return to normal stream by permitting fast moving traffic to overtake slow moving vehicles. These distances shall preferably be 2 km on urban sections and 5 to 10 km on rural sections of the highway. The length of work sub-zones will vary.
(For Recommended Length of Construction Zones refer Annexure III )
The traffic across these sub-zones is guided and taken with the help of various traffic control devices erected at the site.
An information sign board shall be erected to inform road users of the end of Construction Zone.
Traffic Safety Measures and Control:
Following traffic safety measures shall be ensured during construction:
Erection and maintenance of bamboo stack poles, caution signs and markings and flagmen for the information and protection of traffic approaching or passing through the section of the highway under improvement.
All culverts and bridges would be barricaded by providing two drums at the two ends of culvert. In between drums, bamboo with red and white stripes would be installed with reflective tapes on them for night visibility. The area to be cordoned off with safety barricading tape. Caution boards shall be placed at two ends of the bridge.
Red lights or warning lights of similar type shall be mounted on the barricades at night and kept it throughout from sunset to sunrise.
At the points where traffic is to deviate from its normal path as per site requirement, the channel for traffic shall be clearly marked. At high traffic area, Caution boards would be installed 60 meters before the respective diversion area “speed breaker” board. “DIVERSION’3 board would be installed at the both ends of the diversion road.
All diversions would be kept free of dust by frequent application of water.
Flagmen with red and green flag would be deployed at both ends of the respective diversion for the smooth flow of traffic as and when required.
Deep excavation area would be barricaded by barricading tape.
For guidance of road user caution boards with regulatory and warning information such as “GO SLOW, MEN AT WORK” & for illiterates pictorial “GO SLOW, WORK IN PROGRESS” would be installed at 100 meter intervals.
TRAFFIC CONTROL DEVICES
Traffic control devices are the devices which perform the crucial task of warning, informing and alerting the driver / road user apart from guiding the vehicle movements so that the driver of the vehicle as well as the workers on site are protected and safe passage to the traffic is possible.
The primary traffic control devices used in work sub-zones are signs, delineators, barricades, cones, pylons, pavement markings, flashing lights etc. They shall be such that they are easily understood without any confusion, are clearly visible during day and night, conform to the prevailing speeds in immediate vicinity, stable against sudden adverse weather conditions and are easy in installation, removal and maintenance.
Ø SAFETY SIGNS
“Safety sign” is a sign, which uses a pictorial symbol to provide health or safety information or instruction. The sign may also include a written message. The construction and maintenance signs fall into the same three major categories viz. regulatory signs, warning signs arid guide signs as other traffic signs do. Warning, Cautionary, Prohibition and command signs shall be installed and will not be removed or changed till they are required at site.
Ø REGULATORY SIGNS
Regulatory signs mean legal restrictions on the traffic. The most common types for use in construction zones are “Do not Enter”, “Road Closed”, “Speed limit” etc.
The most common type of warning signs to alert the drivers of the possible dangers ahead in construction zones are “Lane Closed”, “Diversion to other Carriageway”, “Divided Carriageway Starts”, “Divided Carriageway Ends” and “Two Way Traffic” etc. Sometimes it might be advisable to explain these signs with the help of a rectangular definition plate of size appropriate to the size of warning triangle and placed 0.15 m below, from the bottom of the triangle.
Ø GUIDE SIGNS
Guide signs in construction zones shall have different background colour than the normal informatory signs. These signs shall have black messages and arrows on yellow background. The commonly used guide signs are: “Diversion”, “Road Ahead Closed” and “Sharp Deviation of route” etc.
Delineators are the channelizing devices such as cones, traffic cylinders, tapes, drums, which shall be placed in or adjacent to the roadway to guide the drivers along a safe path and to control the flow of traffic. These shall normally be retro-reflectorised for night visibility.
Ø TRAFFIC CONES AND CYLINDERS
Traffic cones are normally 0.5m to 0.75m high and 0.3m to 0.4m in diameter or are in square shape at the base. These are mostly made of plastic or rubber with retro- reflectorised red and white band and have suitable anchoring so that they are not easily blown over or displaced. They shall be placed close enough together to give an impression of the continuity. The spacing shall be 3m (close) to 9m (normal). Larger size cones can be used for high speeds or where more conspicuous guidance is required.
Empty bitumen drums (made of metal) cut to the required height shall also be used as channelizing devices since they are highly visible give the appearance of being formidable objects, thereby commanding the respect of the drivers. These drums can also be of plastic which are lighter, easy to transport and store. As delineators, these drums shall be about 0.80 to 1.0 m high and 0.30 m in diameter. They shall be painted in circumferential strips 0.10 m to 0.15 m wide, alternatively in black and white colours.
Whenever the traffic has to be restricted from entering the work areas, such as excavations or material storage sites so that protection to workers is provided or there is a need for separating the two way traffic, barricades shall be used. The barricades can be portable or permanent type and can be made of wooden planks, metal or other suitable material. The horizontal component facing the traffic is made of 0.30 m wide wooden planks joined together and painted in alternate yellow and white strips of 0.15 m width and sloping down at an angle of 45 degree in the direction of the traffic Suitable support or ballasting shall be provided so that they do not over turn or are not blown away in strong winds. In case of a permanent type barricade, a gate or movable section shall be separately provided to allow the movement of construction/supervision vehicles.
On large construction sites, flagmen with flags and sign paddles shall be effectively used to guide the safe movements. The flags for signalling shall be 0.60 m x 0.60 m size, made of a good red cloth and securely fastened to a staff of approximately 1m in length.
SAFETY AND MANAGEMENT PRACTICES
Measures for providing safe movement of traffic in some of the most commonly occurring work zones on highways shall be as follows:
In the cases of major repairs or reconstruction of cross drainage structures on a highway section, damaged due to flood etc., the traffic may have to pass on a diversion, moving parallel to the highway.
The warning for the construction ahead shall be provided by the sign “Men at Work” about 1 km earlier to the work zone or a supplementary plate indicating “Diversion 1 km ahead” and I or a sign “Road Closed Ahead” shall be placed. It shall be followed by “Compulsory Turn Right/Left Sign”. The “Detour” and “Sharp Deviation” sign shall be used to guide the traffic onto the diversion.
Hazard markers shall be placed just where the railings for the cross drainage structures on the diversion starts.
PARTIAL CLOSURE OF EXISTING TWO LANE CARRIAGEWAY:
In special situations when the existing two lanes in use for the main traffic need emergency repairs and the new lanes under construction are not available for diversion of the traffic. it will become necessary to carryout special repairs through partial closure of the existing two lane facility.
In this situation care shall be taken that the traffic is guided from the closed lane onto the operating lane without conflicting with the traffic from opposite direction.
The warning sign for “Men at Work” shall be the installed such that it shall be seen by the approaching vehicle driver at the first instance. This sign shall also have a supplementary plate showing the distance of work zone. The next warning sign shall be for the “Road Narrowing” (depending upon the lane closure).
Compulsory “Keep Right” or “Keep Left” sign depending upon the situation shall be provided at the beginning of the transition zone and taper.
The point from where the traffic is to deviate from its normal path, the channel for traffic shall be clearly marked with the aid of painted drums or traffic cones. The spacing of these cones and/or drums shall be about 9 m or closer as per site requirement. “The traffic lane or carriageway closed” sign shall also be provided at barricades along with “Keep Right / Left” sign.
Whenever the work of small magnitude is to be carried out in the middle of the carriageway, such as minor repairs of potholes, cracks and patches, then the traffic control measures shall mainly consist of providing cautionary signs of “Men at Work”, about 500m before the work zone for the approaching vehicle and other cautionary sign of “Road Narrows”, shall be placed at 100m ahead of work area. Regulatory sign of “Keep Left/Right” shall be placed at the commencement point of the work zone and next to the barriers for the approaching vehicles. Movable type of barriers shall also be placed on both sides of the work area. Cones or drums shall be placed at suitable interval to demarcate the work area.
CONSTRUCTION OF NEW CARRIAGEWAY
URBAN SECTION OF THE PROJECT HIGHWAY:
a) The service roads on either side together with side drains shall be constructed initially. During this period the main traffic shall use the existing two lane carriageway. The construction traffic in the work zone shall be safely brought out from the main stream traffic by erecting appropriate signs at the beginning of the work site. Also on return it will be amalgamated with the mainstream traffic by erecting appropriate signs at the end of the work site. It shall be ensured that there shall be identified entry and exist points duly designed so that haphazard entry or exit of construction traffic is avoided. Conflicting turning movements shall be avoided.
b) On completion of the Stage-I, the main traffic shall be diverted on their respective directions on to the newly constructed service road I roads and the 4-laning of the existing two lane carriageway shall be done as per drawings. During this stage, position of different signs / delineators / barricades to ensure safety of workers.
HAZARD IDENTIFICATION AND EVALUATION
Ø HOUSE KEEPING
Housekeeping is an orderly arrangement of operations, tools, equipment, storage facilities and supplies. A place for everything and everything in its place. House Keeping is a good indicator of construction safety attitude. It improves employee’s morale, reduces operating cost, increases production time, facilitates easy check of operations and reduces accident.
Poor storage of materials
Rubbish left to accumulate
Restricted or blocked access
Inadequate waste skips or bins
Due to poor housekeeping many accidents happen on site. The majority of these are slips, trips, falls and manual handling accidents.
POSSIBLE CAUSES FOR POOR HOUSE KEEPING
A. Lack of Orderliness and Cleanliness
Oily condition of the floor
Uneven floor and protruding parts on the floor
Slippery condition around the wash basin
No gang way
Aisles not clearly marked
Hand tools on work benches
B. Scrap and Rubbish
Overflowing of containers
Scrap lying scattered
Chips lying around machines
Tools and materials left at heights
Inadequate for purpose
Materials improperly stacked
Projecting materials obstructing aisles
Improperly packed / No packing
Lifting tackles lying below materials
Accessibility to panel boards
Cable trenches full of unwanted materials
Welding cables not protected when crossing gangways
Power cords crossing gangways
Improper cylinder caps and keys
Condition of gas cylinder hoses
F. Lights and Ventilation
Maintain the worksite and premises in a healthy, clean and sanitary Condition
Plan access routes and keep all gangways, aisles and stairways clean and clear.
Define storage and compound areas.
Stack or place materials, tools and other equipment in a such way that they do not hinder worksite activities.
Ensure materials are stored correctly and kept in the store until needed.
Ensure that waste materials are cleared up and disposed of correctly, or placed in waste containers, as work proceeds. Don’t leave rubbish lying around: tidy up as you go.
Wipe out spilt oil, grease or liquids immediately. Special attention shall be given to removal of slipping and tripping hazards.
Don’t leave loose tools on running machines.
Use signs whenever and wherever necessary.
HOW TO IMPROVE
Plan carefully the house keeping programme, section-wise and get cooperation from all employees.
Systematic checking of all operations, plant and machinery condition at frequent intervals and also ensure prompt action to rectify the defects.
By proper control over the flow and usage of the materials, housekeeping becomes easier and less expensive.
Lay out of machinery, equipment, storage space, aisles and material movement facilitates should be pie-planned.
Constitute a housekeeping committee, which makes a routine inspection of various sections and suggests ways for removing unsafe conditions.
PRINCIPLES OF EARTHING
National regulation on electricity requires that all non-current carrying metallic part of electrical equipment should be solidly connected to the general mass of the earth with at least two distinct earth connections.
The principle behind earthing is that any leakage current which accidentally energizes non-current carrying metallic parts should flow back through the general mass of earth to the sustains thereby protective devices are actuated to cut off the supply as quickly as possible.
The earth connections should provide least possible resistance to the flow of current.
The setting and selection of the protective devices should be such that it should operate fast enough to cut off the supply so that anyone coming into contact with the defective appliance or equipment could be saved from the electric shock.
METHODOLOGY OF CULVERT AND BRIDGE
When the work start on culvert and bridge perversion of traffic movement change without safety precautions. Caution board I sign board be used. Delineator, Barricade and direction board be used. When worker work at site flagman both direction indicate traffic movement and road marking line show.
BARRICADING OF CULVERT AND BRIDGE
Barricading of culvert and bridge are to be proposed type 1 & type 2.
CONCENTRIC WIDENING IN URBAN AREA
Concentric widening in urban areas to be done after local traffic move on service road by Delineator 1 sign board
SAFETY MEASURES DURING NORMAL OPERATION
Suddenly vehicle on the carriageway are the course of further accidents obstructing the smooth flow of the traffic.
No Parking of a vehicle on any of the divided carriageway taken place any time.
Immediate assistance is provided to accident victims and their rescue.
Minor debris and stalled vehicles are removed from carriageway within an hour Time.
In the accident of traffic congestion adequate measures Shall be taken mitigate
VEHICLE BREAK DOWN AND ACCIDENT
Relevant operating procedures include the setting up of temporary traffic cones and lights.
Ensure any diversion or Interruption of traffic is remedied without delay.
SAFETY MEASURES DURING CONCESSION PERIOD
During the concession period many activities are involved at different stages and at various periods in respect of construction operation and maintenance of the Project highway. Safety of the road user and the project work man at site-
CHECKLIST OF WORK MAN AT SITE
Safety of the project workers at site during duty hours responsibility ensured by him safety measures appropriate for the job a work man performs provided.
Accidents of the workers by the traffic using the highway diversion
Provide helmets and protective chest vests to its work man at site and make it compulsory for to wear.
Insure all the project workers against accident
Labour law follow
On comparing various factors of Kota-Jhalawar road section on NH-12 with those of Aligarh-kanpur road section on NH-91 it is concluded that-
There are too many alternative routes on Kota section
There is too much leakage of traffic in Kota section
The states from where the maximum traffic is coming don’t have good GDP
The traffic is very less on Kota section
Overall revenue generation was very low compared to the project cost in Kota section
Based on the above factors, no bid was submitted for the Kota section whereas Aligarh section was aggressively bid and won.
Have to look upon the following factors also-
In the years ahead, the construction industry in India has to overcome various challenges with respect to housing, environment, transportation, power or natural hazards.
Technocrats associated with the Indian construction industry need to employ innovative technologies and skilled project handling strategies to overcome these challenges.
The outstanding performance under demanding situations in the past will stand in good stead and give confidence to the Indian construction industry to bring about an overall development in the infrastructure of the nation.